Artificial

Made or produced by human beings rather than occurring naturally, especially as a copy of something natural.

Neural

Relating to a nerve or the nervous system.

Network

A group or system of interconnected people or things.

According to Wikipedia

Artificial neural networks are computing systems that are inspired by, but not necessarily identical to, the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains. Such systems “learn” to perform tasks by considering examples, generally without being programmed with any task-specific rules.

Tec4Tric explains Artificial Neural Network

An Artificial Neural Network(ANN) is an efficient information processing system. It processes a large number of highly interconnected elements, called neurons, nodes or units. Each neuron is connected with the other by a connection link. And each connection link is associated with weights, which contain information about the input. ANN’s collective behavior is characterized by their ability to learn, recall, and generalize patterns similar to that of a human brain. ANN is being used in Machine Learning and Deep Learning for more accurate results.

Each neuron has an internal state, called Activation. The activation signal of a neuron is transmitted to other neurons.

A Neuron can send only one signal at a time.

What is Biological Neuron?

A biological neuron consists of Fours Parts Mainly,
  • Dendrite – Receives signals from other neurons.
  • Synapse – Point of connection to other neurons.
  • Soma – It’s the CPU, it processes the information.
  • Axon – Transmits the output of the neuron.

Evolution of Neural Networks

Year

Neural Network

Inventor

1943

McCulloch Pitts Neuron

McCulloch & Pitts
1949
Hebb Network
Hebb
1958 – 1988

Perceptron

Frank Rosenblatt, Block, Minsky & Papert

1960
Adaline
Widrow & Hoff
1972
Kohonen self-organizing feature map
Kohonen
1986
Back-propagation
Rumelhart, Hinton & Williams
1987
Adaptive Resonance Theory
Carpenter & Grossberg
1988
Counter-propagation
Grossberg
1988
Radial basis function
Broomhead & Lowe
1988
Neo-cognition
Fukushima

Let me describe, What is McCulloch Pitts Neuron first

Wikipedia says An Artificial Neuron or The Mcculloch Pitts Neuron is a mathematical function conceived as a model of biological neurons, a neural network.